festinger and carlsmith experiment quizlet

Social Researcher. This has many practical implications. Their research suggested to them that if the laws changed first, forcing a change in behavior, the attitudes would follow along later. The participants who were paid only $1 to perform the boring In a classic piece of cognitive dissonance research, researchers assigned students to different sides of a debate about the merits of college football. Festinger, L. & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959) Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Changes in attitude toward a specific, context-dependent topic, such as enjoyment of the mundane task in the experiment described above (Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959) Information seeking following a change in usual behavior (Engel, 1963) According to Sternberg, the emotional and psychical arousal a person feels for another is the_______ component of love. In this experiment, 71 male participants were given a series of nonsensical and boring tasks. /T 679093 Carol is showing, In Milgram's study, as the teachers became reluctant to continue, the experimenter, Studies have found that in civil suits, if individual members of the jury favor stiff penalties, the deliberation process will result in even higher penalties. Two derivations from this theory are tested here. Control condition. Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) investigated if making people perform a dull task would create cognitive dissonance through forced compliance behavior. He introduced the girl and the S to one another saying that the S had just finished the experiment and would tell her something about it. He was told to use one hand and to work at his own speed. Subjects who received $20 had no problem explaining their behavior to themselves. After the half hour on the second task was over, the E conspicuously set the stop watch back to zero, put it away, pushed his chair back, lit a cigarette, and said: Up to this point the procedure was identical for Ss in all conditions. Group B was given introduction by an experimenter, presenting the tasks in an interesting and enjoyable tone. Hence, the alternative explanation discussed above cannot account for the findings. According to _________ theory, prejudice may result, at least in part, from the need to increase one's own self-esteem by looking down on others. Retrieved Mar 04, 2023 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/cognitive-dissonance. What is the Sacrifice Trap? In teacher Jane Elliot's classic study, the most startling finding was that the______. Behavior that is intended to hurt or destroy another person is referred to as. No problem, save it as a course and come back to it later. He hoped to exhibit cognitive dissonance in an experiment which was cleverly disguised as a performance experiment. they shifted their attitudes and perceived the task as more enjoyable To study this, Festinger and Carlsmith performed an experiment using seventy-one male students at . His data, however did not support this idea. To do otherwise would have been to create conflict or dissonance (lack of harmony) between their attitudes and their behavior. (p.3). KELMAN, H. Attitude change as a function of response restriction Hum. _______ occurs when people begin to think that it is more important to maintain a group's cohesiveness than to objectively consider the facts. c5; Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) Term 1 / 8 aim Click the card to flip Definition 1 / 8 show that a person's private opinion will change to reduce dissonance when it conflicts with what they are forced to do Click the card to flip Flashcards Learn Test Match Created by UorFawzi Terms in this set (8) aim This project has received funding from the, You are free to copy, share and adapt any text in the article, as long as you give, Select from one of the other courses available, https://explorable.com/cognitive-dissonance, Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0), European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. Now Lilly says that classic rock is her favorite music, too. Harry's belief is based on. In Asian cultures, people tend to explain the behavior of others as a result of______. % Lilly's mother always listens to the classic rock station on her car radio, so Lilly has grown up hearing that music and noticing how much her mother enjoys it. The participants who were in the control group were not given any motivation. Doing so, they started to identify with the arguments and accept them as their own. The difference .between the One Dollar and Control conditions is not impressive at all (t = 1.21). The opposite of Franklin's principle is described by Eric Hoffer, in The True Believer (1951). Would the subject say that the experiment as he had experienced it was actually likely to measure Eliot Aronson, himself a famous social psychologist and former student of Festinger, called this "the most important experiment in the history of social psychology" ("Social Researcher", 1984). moderate; information about how to prevent the fearful consequences. Which of the following represents an example of cognitive dissonance? endobj Betty writes a letter to her senator asking for support of a law making corporations responsible for the pollution they cause. One Dollar condition. Specifically, subjects were asked to put spools onto and then off the try with the use of only one hand for half an hour, and then for the next half hour, turn square pegs clockwise in quarter turns, and then start all over again once the whole cycle's been finished for all 48 square pegs. Festinger, L. (1957). He also gives each taster a coupon worth $1 off his or her grocery bill. Evanston, IL: Row & Peterson. What is the reason for the lack of action, according to Darley and Latane? in the experiment we varied the amount of reward used to force persons to make a statement contrary to their private views. The participants were experiencing cognitive dissonance because they were being asked to tell other people that the tasks were fun and interesting when, in reality, they were tedious and boring. Similarly, the knowledge that he has said "not X" is consonant with (does fit together with) those cognitive elements corresponding to the reasons, pressures, promises of rewards and/or threats of punishment which induced him to say "not X. We'll bring you back here when you are done. Hoffer, E. (1951) The True Believer. Hoffer pointed out that, after the Nazis had started persecuting the Jews, it became easier for the average German citizen to hate the Jews. Sandy loves to play pool and has become quite good at the game. When experimenters asked later for the truth, the highly paid subjects said the experiment was actually boring. Which of the following is not an element of social identity theory? Psy 301: Social Psychology For an hour, you are required to perform dull tasks, such as turning wooden knobs again and again. The 71 subjects were informed that the experiment focuses on the "Measures of Performance." endobj Obviously, Gerard knows nothing about. Festinger explained it this way in A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (1957): The existence of dissonance, being psychologically uncomfortable, will motivate the person to try to reduce the dissonance and achieve consonance. But other factors would enter also. New York Times, p.C1. Our identity is in part created by identifying ourselves with the organization or the community for which the sacrifices have been made. %%EOF The Effects of Prejudice, Stereotype & Discrimination Sigmund Freud believed that aggression is. How did the Festinger and Carlson experiment work? This question is less directly related to the dissonance that was experimentally created for the Ss. Cognitive Dissonance refers to the discomfort that is felt when a person has two beliefs that conflict with each other, or when they are engaging in . Why are black people stopped by police more than white people? Eddie has made the _________. Patrick is very proud of his Irish heritage and thinks of himself as an Irish American. Which of the following statements is TRUE? In the other two conditions, however, the Ss told someone that these tasks were interesting and enjoyab1e. The amount of money paid the subject was varied. New York Times, p.C1. Were the tasks interesting and enjoyable? The subjects were divided into two groups, A and B, where Group A was provided no introduction regarding the tasks they will be performing and Group B was. In the first experiment designed to test these theoretical ideas, Aronson and Mills (1959) had women undergo a severe or mild "initiation" to become a member of a group. "Fight acts, not feelings," is the banner of anti-racist social scientists. 60 0 obj It enabled us to measure the opinions of our Ss in a context not directly connected with our experiment and in which we could reasonably expect frank and honest expressions of opinion. [p. 208] In the Twenty Dollar condition, where less dissonance was created experimentally because of the greater importance of the consonant relations, there is correspondingly less evidence of dissonance reduction. The findings of the classic Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) experiment indicate that: The loan officer's belief is an example of_____. The girl, after this listened quietly, accepting and agreeing to everything the S told her. 0000000609 00000 n Specifically, they showed that if a person is forced to improvise a speech supporting a point of view with which he disagrees, his private opinion moves toward the position advocated in the speech. Three conditions were run, Control, One Dollar, and Twenty Dollars as follows: If the S hesitated, the E said things like, "It will only take a few minutes," "The regular person is pretty reliable; this is the first time he has missed," or "If we needed you we could phone you a day or two in advance; if you couldn't make it of course, we wouldn't expect you to come." The Ss were given a very good reason, in addition to being paid, for saying what they did to the waiting girl. hbbd``b` H? One might expect: that, in the Twenty Dollar condition, having been paid more, they would try to do a better job of it than in the One Dollar condition. They were paid a lot of money to lie, and that explained why they lied. }. The formation of in-groups and out-groups, The effect that people's awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior is, Strategies for overcoming prejudice include. //document.getElementById('adblockmessage').style.display = 'block'; These results are the ones most directly relevant to the specific dissonance which we experimentally created It will be recalled that the tasks were purposely arranged to be rather boring and monotonous. But when Eddie is late the next day, he blames it on heavy traffic. We are certainly justified in concluding that the Ss in the One Dollar condition did not improvise more nor act more convincingly. Evanston, Ill: Row Peterson, 1957. The question was included because, as far as we could see, it had nothing to do with the dissonance that was experimentally created and could not be used for dissonance reduction. /Root 48 0 R You must have JavaScript enabled to use this form. If you want somebody to like you, induce the person to perform "liking behavior" such as doing you a favor. Gerard goes to his job interview dressed in patched blue jeans, a torn t-shirt, and sandals. In this study, Festinger and Carlsmith found that When they arrived at the interviewer's office, the E asked the interviewer whether or not he wanted to talk to the S. The interviewer said yes, the E shook hands with the S, said good-bye, and left. But Nicole's mom was so excited, Nicole couldn't bear to disappoint her. Half of them were offered $1 to do it, and half of them were offered $20. Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) conducted one of the first studies examining cognitive dissonance. First published in Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-210. Why this might have been the case is, of course, not immediately apparent. The dissonance could, consequently, be reduced by magnifying the importance of this cognition. Her improved performance is an example of. endstream Please select the correct language below. Vince's behavior is an example of. Jeff is assuming a, Cheryl got a bad grade on her test, which she attributes to the fact that she had to work overtime throughout the week and so could not study as much as usual. If you change your attitudes, then presumably your behavior will change. endstream endobj startxref One would consequently expect to observe such opinion change after a person has been forced or induced to say something contrary to his private opinion. In addition to these 5 exceptions, another 2 of the paid participants told the girl the truth that the tasks she will be performing are boring and uninteresting, and that they were just being paid to say otherwise. All Ss, without exception, were quite willing to return the money. Which of the following is not one of the elements of effective persuasion? Cite details from the essay that support your response. The stove is too large to be moved out of his way, so he has to learn not to touch it -even when Martha isn't looking. 3. Introducing Cram Folders! Those who were paid $1 were forced to rationalize their own judgments and convinced themselves that what they were doing is enjoyable because they had no other justification. Marco is using an example of. This was rated in the same way as for the content before the remark. Don't see what you need? From this point on, the procedure for all three conditions was once more identical. test scores of each group decreased when it was the out-group. In one study, college students liked another student simply because they were told that the other student liked them. Boulding, K. E. (1969) The grants economy. Do a site-specific Google search using the box below. In this course, students are required to spend a certain number of hours as subjects (Ss) in experiments. Cognitive Dissonance. What is more, as one might expect, the percentage of subjects who complied increased as the size of the offered reward increased. Which of the following is not one of the three things people do to reduce cognitive dissonance? Two studies reported by Janis and King (1954; 1956) clearly showed that, at least under some conditions, the private opinion changes so as to bring it into closer correspondence with the overt behavior the person was forced to perform. The same logic applies to selfish concerns such as getting other people to respect you. Five Ss (three in the One Dollar and two in the Twenty Dollar condition) indicated in the interview that they were suspicious about having been paid to tell the girl the experiment was fun and suspected that that was the real purpose of the experiment. It implies that if you want to change attitudes, all you have to do is change behavior, and the attitudes will follow along. After the debate, students expressed beliefs closer to their debate position than before (Scott, 1957). Psych Web has over 1,000 pages, so it may be elsewhere on the site. While watching the TV game show Jeopardy, your roommate says, "The game show host, Alex Trebek, knows all the answers. 3. He then left saying he would return in a couple of minutes. Selena has just used the, Changing ones behavior due to a direct order of an authority figure is referred to as. Their prediction provedcorrect. hXr8=fj*!US%mfy l8oIbR0Bn t7!g] %>))BI0` 98sUx GHM. show that a person's private opinion will change to reduce dissonance when it conflicts with what they are forced to do, stanford uni students were asked to do simple, boring tasks for an hour and the researchers timed them with a stopwatch and took notes to make it seem as if the task was important, the participants were given either $1 or $20 to tell another student that the task was fun, there was a clear difference of opinion in the follow up interview. Based on experiments by Festinger and Carlsmith, the idea that people are motivated to have consistent attitudes and behaviors. >> Prev page|Page top|Chapter Contents|Next page What happens when students are asked to defend positions contrary to their beliefs? This is an example of, The fact that Kitty Genovese did not receive help was most likely due to. The hour which the S spent working on the repetitive, monotonous tasks was intended to provide, for each S uniformly, an experience about which he would have a somewhat negative opinion. participants were paid $1 and the other half was paid $20. So, to avoid dissonance, the person likes you. A fraction of the subjects were thanked and let go after being interviewed by another experimenter regarding ways on how the presentation of the boring tasks can be improved for future purposes. Chris is showing, Carol is told by a police officer to move her car, and she does so. In the . 109 0 obj <>stream Festinger and Carlsmith argued that subjects who were paid onJy $1.00 to lie to another person experienced "cognitive dissonance." According to Festinger (1957), people experience cognitive dissonance when they simultaneously hold two thoughts that are psychologically inconsistent (i.e., thoughts that feel contradictory or incompatible in some . Kenneth Boulding, an economist and past president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, described a pattern that relates to cognitive dissonance. These Ss were hired for one dollar to tell a waiting S that tasks, which were really rather dull and boring, were interesting, enjoyab1e, and lots of fun. Check out our quiz-page with tests about: Explorable.com (Nov 21, 2010). 0000013918 00000 n Which method of attitude formations is involved in this example? The said images can be a reference to physical reality or in comparison to other people. endobj The participants were 71 male students in totality. How can you get someone to like you, according to Ben Franklin? Leon Festinger's 1957 cognitive dissonance theory suggests that we act to reduce the disharmony, or dissonance, of our conflicting feelings. What term refers to helping behavior that is performed voluntarily for the benefit of another person, which no anticipation of reward? He found, rather, that a large reward produced less subsequent opinion change than did a smaller reward. Discourage questions and alternate solutions. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55, 72-75. To do otherwise would have been to create conflict or dissonance (lack of harmony) between their attitudes and their behavior. << In explaining our own behavior, we tend to use situational attributions rather than personal, which is, When prejudicial attitudes cause members of a particular social group to be treated differently than the others in situations that call for equal treatment, it is called. Maria had fallen victim to the_______technique. Deception is the cornerstone of the experiment conceived by Leon Festinger in the year 1959. Which event or moment has the greatest effect on the author's decision to protest? Leon Festinger and his colleague James Carlsmith performed an experiment regarding cognitive dissonance in 1959. <> It was too long, and that preacher wasn't dressed up enough" would be an example of which type of processing? Fritz Heider developed _______ to explain why people choose the particular explanations of behavior that they do. Recently Festinger (1957) proposed a theory concerning cognitive dissonance from which come a number of derivations about opinion change following forced compliance. The Social Comparison Theory was originally proposed by Leon Festinger in 1954. The results were surprising to Festinger. Would the subject be willing to do a small favor for the experimenter? As can be readily seen in Table 1, there are only negligible differences among conditions. Research on conformity suggests that if a _____ response is required, ______ show more conformity than ______. Which situation would be last likely to result in a decrease of prejudice? During a class discussion, he hears the first of several speakers express negative attitudes toward spending tax money on prenatal care for the poor. When her boyfriend refuses, she asks, "Well, will you at least wash the dishes then?" "Look, Officer, I didn't see the stop sign back there because the sun was in my eyes" The police officer responds, "You were not paying attention." (Boulding, 1969) To achieve consonance, something has to give. /Size 61 Festinger and Carlsmith further concluded, based off the the control group, that those who were only paid $1 felt that they were forcing themselves to explain how "enjoyable" of a task this was when in reality it was not. This study involved 71 male students from Stanford University, of which 11 students were disqualified. In this study, research participants were asked to spend an hour completing boring tasks (for example, repeatedly loading spools onto a tray). 2. On the other hand, the ones who were paid $20, apparently had the money as their primary justification for carrying out their task. 3. His refusal to grant them loans is an example of________. Through the lens of cognitive dissonance theory, however, the explanation was a bit different. The interview consisted of four questions, on each of which the S was first encouraged to talk about the matter and was then asked to rate his opinion or reaction on an 11-point scale. repeatedly turning pegs in a peg board for an hour. A theory of cognitive dissonance. This works (according to cognitive dissonance theory) because, once the person has put out time and energy to help you, the person must develop an attitude consistent with the behavior. Which of the following researchers conducted a series of studies on conformity that involved having a subject judge the length of three lines after a group of confederates all reported an obviously incorrect answer? Do a site-specific Google search using the box below. Don't have time for it all now? Which of the following was NOT a component of Robert Sternberg's theory of love? Psychologists familiar with dissonance theory said just the opposite. correct. The "Robber's Cave" experiment showed the value of _____in combating prejudice. They had not enjoyed the experiment, but now they were asked to lie and say they had enjoyed it. [1] The experiment reported here was done as part of a program of research supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation to the senior author. They choose among the available experiments by signing their names on a sheet posted on the bulletin board which states the nature of the experiment. Identify the following terms or individuals and explain their significance: Which of the following is an example of indirect characterization? The people with whom a person identifies most strongly are called the________. In these circumstances, the object of sacrifice becomes "sacred" and it is in a position to demand further sacrifices. They asked the participants to execute boring tasks, such as repeatedly. For Jerry, going to the dog races a lot represents the___________component of an attitude. As shown in Ashes experiment, conforming to the majority happens more often than people think. Hum. Solomon Asch, a social psychologist conducted a series of experiments called Asch conformity to study how the behavior of a certain group influence the behav Normative conformity is most commonly referred to as peer pressure, and is prevalent in our present society. Thus, if the overt behavior was brought about by, say, offers of reward or threats of punishment, the magnitude of dissonance is maximal if these promised rewards or threatened punishments were just barely sufficient to induce the person to say "not X." JANIS, I.L. When the S arrived for the experiment on "Measures of Performance" he had to wait for a few minutes in the secretary's office. Recently Festinger (1957) proposed a theory concerning cognitive dissonance from which come a number of derivations about opinion change following forced compliance. The first area is whether the tasks were interesting and enjoyable at all. Despite the seriousness of his message, the police officer jokes and laughs with the employees. Which of the following was a finding in the classic study by Festinger and Carlsmith (1959)? The participants who were paid only $1 to perform the boring Hoffer pointed out that, after the Nazis had started persecuting the Jews, it became easier for the average German citizen to hate the Jews. A rating of how persuasive and convincing the S was in what he said and the way in which he said it. Please sign in to share these flashcards. Add to folder Sandy was a juror in the trial for a man accused of stealing guns from a sporting goods store. The discussion between the S and the girl was recorded on a hidden tape recorder. These 11 Ss were, of course, run through the total experiment anyhow and the experiment was explained to them afterwards. that the participants who were paid $20 would experience less Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55, 72-75. An internet resource developed by Like Explorable? Michigan Academician, 1, 3-12. Ben Franklin gave some peculiar advice that makes sense in the context of cognitive dissonance theory. This subtle dynamic makes cognitive dissonance a powerful tool for changing attitudes. A concrete example involves the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s in the United States. The participants who convinced themselves that the task really was fun were the ones who were___________. 2. ---------------------References: These Ss were treated identically in all respects to the Ss in the experimental conditions, except that they were never asked to, and never did, tell the waiting girl that the experimental tasks were enjoyable and lots of fun. That is it. The present experiment was designed to test this derivation under controlled, laboratory conditions. He called it the Sacrifice Trap: If we once start making sacrifices for anythinga family, a religion, or a nationwe find that we cannot admit to ourselves that the sacrifices have been in vain without a threat to our personal identity. If you want somebody to like you, induce the person to perform "liking behavior" such as doing you a favor. How could they explain their own behavior to themselves? Since these derivations are stated in detail by Festinger (1957, Ch. These recordings were transcribed and then rated, by two independent raters, on five dimensions. We would also like to acknowledge the help of Ruth Smith and Marilyn M. Miller. Recently, Festinger (1957) bas proposed a theory concerning cognitive dissonance. Hence, his cognition of his private belief is dissonant with his cognition concerning his actual public statement. They asked the participants to execute boring tasks, such as xref Every individual has his or her own way of evaluating their own selves and usually this is done by comparing themselves to others. /Contents 58 0 R 48 0 obj The variability is greater, however, and the differences do not yield high levels of statistical significance. In each group, the confederates wore identical glasses, with the participant/subject wearing a different set of glasses. endobj In Asch's black line experiment, participants. The third asks whether that subject finds the activity important, again using the scale of 0 to 10. Initially, subjects will be told that they will be participating in a two-hour experiment. Subjects paid $1 were enthusiastic about their lies, and were successful in convincing others that the experiment's activities were interesting. are learned through experiences and contact with others, Cindy tastes peas for the first time and realizes she does not like them. C. She knew she had to find something that she was interested in. 90 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<20DCF6A9F66A934D9B18D4D3D2546E7A><7EBEFA77420BBC4EB7D76A22531484C2>]/Index[80 30]/Info 79 0 R/Length 66/Prev 129900/Root 81 0 R/Size 110/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream We weren't able to detect the audio language on your flashcards. The remaining subjects were asked to take the place of an experimenter, if they would want to. Instead the opposite happened.

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